What is Criminal Psychology?
Criminal psychology is a subsection of legal psychology that studies the psychological characteristics of the formation and development of illegal activity and the possibility of preventing it. Some of the main factors contributing to the formation of illegal consciousness are the negative impact of the social environment, pedagogical neglect and character deviations.
What measures are applied in Criminal Psychology?
In order to intelligently decide what measures should be applied to a particular criminal to remove him from the criminal path, you need, firstly, to know what exactly in his personality served as the root of his crime. Secondly, we have to find out what kind of psychological change he should make in order to achieve an alteration in his personality that is in the public interest.
To solve these issues, it is necessary to find out what kind of criminal world this subject belongs to. General information about the criminogenic features inherent in that particular criminal society enables psychologists to find appropriate ways to influencing them. Criminal psychology should provide solid grounds for resolving all these issues.
Briefly, it can be defined as the psychology of the fight against crime. It views crime as a manifestation of the person’s mental constitution. It establishes and investigates various types of criminals (criminal typology), as well as signs and techniques for their recognition (criminal differential diagnostics). It establishes the types of psychological impact for the purposes of criminal justice. Carriers of various criminal types (criminal pedagogy) should be exposed.
Criminal psychology deals only with individuals who have violated the criminal law and are not in a state of mental illness.
The study of individual characteristics has additional significance. Under the influence of certain circumstances, a person can manifest certain forms of behavior related to the sphere of crime. The main value is the observation and accurate scientific description of individual facts that characterize or explain it.
A forensic psychologist obtains data for his conclusions and descriptions by thoroughly studying individual cases of crimes and examining their perpetrators, their physical and mental state, property, family and social status, as well as by studying individual criminal processes. The study of various aspects of the personality according to the history of life is the path of the forensic psychologist.
He must find evidence from carefully verified and studied concrete facts. He needs to familiarize himself in the detail of the whole life story of this criminal, from childhood to the present moment. It is necessary to find out from these facts how this person reacted in various life situations. You need to imagine a clear picture of the conditions in which the character of this criminal evolved, such as the nature and mutual relations of his parents or teachers, their material and social situation, the internal life of the family, the nature of the school in which he studied, and what he was interested in at school, as well as many other influencing factors.